Class: 5 Mother Sauces, plus Mayo and stock/sauce bases
Presentors: Anthony Lemos, Slav Dom Chef, Student Organized Services, Inc.
Nick Peters, General Manager, Student Organized Services, Inc.
5 Classic French Foundation Sauces with variations
Bechemel (and variations cheese sauce, curry sauce, dill sauce)
Veloute (and variation Supreme Sauce)
Espagnole Sauce (variations Bordelaise Sauce, Marsala Sauce)
Hollandaise (variations Bearnaise Sauce, Maltaise Sauce, Mousseline Sauce)
Basic Tomato Sauce
Mayonaise (variatiosn garlic, herb, tartar, remoulade)
2 tablespoons butter or margarine
2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1 cup milk, cream, or stockSalt and freshly ground pepper, to taste
CHEESE SAUCE – Stir in 1/4 teaspoon dry mustard with the flour. Once sauce is made, remove from heat and stir in 1/2 to 1 cup sharp Cheddar cheese, stirring until melted.
CURRY SAUCE – Stir in 1/2 teaspoon curry powder with the flour.
DILL SAUCE – Stir in 1 teaspoon chopped fresh or 1/2 teaspoon dried dill weed and a dash of ground nutmeg with the flour.
3 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour
2 cups chicken, fish, or veal stock
Melt butter in a saucepan over medium heat. Stir in flour and cook over medium, stirring constantly, until mixture is smooth and bubbly, about 1 to 2 minutes.
Slowly stir in stock. Heat to boiling, stirring constantly. Reduce the heat to low and cook for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally, season to taste with salt and pepper.
Makes about 2 cups
SUPREME SAUCE – Pour 1 quart chicken or veal velouté in a 2-quart saucepan and simmer over low heat until reduced in volume by 1/4. Place 1 cup heavy cream in a bowl and temper by slowly incorporating about a 1/2 cup of the velouté into the cream. Slowly stir the cream mixture into the sauce, and return to a very low simmer. Add 8 tablespoons butter, 1 at a time, into the sauce while stirring constantly. Add 1 teaspoon, or to taste, lemon juice. Adjust seasonings, as needed. Strain the sauce through cheesecloth or a fine strainer and serve immediately.
Makes about 2 cups
1 small onion, peeled
1 carrot, peeled
1 stalk celery
1 clove garlic
1/2 cup butter
1/2 cup all-purpose flour
2 tablespoons additional butter
6 cups beef stock or bouillon, room temperature
2 ounces tomato purée
1/8 teaspoon salt
1-1/8 teaspoon ground white pepper
TO MAKE SACHET – Place the bay leaf, parsley stems, thyme, and garlic in the square of cheesecloth. Gather up the corners and twist together. Using just 1 end of the string, tie the sachet closed. The other end of the string, the long end, will be suspended from the handle of the saucepan. Set aside until ready to use.
Cut the onion, carrot and celery into medium, 1/2-inch, dice. Set aside. Mince garlic.
Heat the 1/2 cup butter in a small saucepan until hot. Whisk in the flour to a paste consistency, and cook over medium heat, stirring constantly, for 5 to 6 minutes until mixture (roux) bubbles, turns light brown in color and has a nutty aroma. This is called a dark roux. Set aside.
Place the remaining 2 tablespoons butter in a heavy, 4-quart stockpot over medium heat. Add the onion, carrot, and celery. Sauté the vegetables stirring often for about 5 to 6 minutes or until well browned, add the minced garlic and sauté another 1 to 2 minutes.
Add the cooked roux to the vegetables, stirring to combine. Gradually, pour in the brown stock and then the tomato purée. Tie the pre-made sachet to one handle of the stockpot, letting it dangle in the liquid.
Bring to a boil, skimming off any impurities from the surface, as needed. Reduce heat and simmer, uncovered, for about 2 hours, skimming the surface occasionally, until the sauce is reduced to about 1 quart.
Untie sachet. Then pour sauce and the sachet into a fine strainer or china cap lined with cheesecloth. Use a ladle or spoon to gently press any remaining vegetables through the strainer. Discard the sachet.
Season to taste with salt and pepper.
Set over a double boiler filled with warm water until ready to serve. Or cool completely, then cover and store in the refrigerator in an airtight container for up to 1 week. The sauce may also be frozen for up to 3 months.
Makes about 1 quart
BORDELAISE SAUCE – Place 1 cup red wine, 2 minced shallots, 1/4 teaspoon crushed black peppercorns, a pinch of thyme, and 1/2 bay leaf in a saucepan. Bring to a boil and then reduce to medium heat. Cook for about 33 minutes or until reduced by three-fourths. Add 1 quart Demi-glace and simmer for 15 to 20 minutes.
Remove from heat and strain through a lined strainer or cheesecloth. Cut 2 tablespoons butter into small pieces and drop them, 1 at a time, into the sauce while stirring constantly to combine. Serve immediately.
Makes about 4 cups
MARSALA SAUCE – Sautee 1 minced shallot and 2 cups sliced mushrooms for 2 minutes. Add 1 quart Demi-glace and 1 quart of Espagnole Sauce simmer over medium heat for 20 to 35 minutes until reduced to 6 cups. Add 1/4 cup Marsala wine stirring to combine. Serve immediately.
Makes about 6 cups
4 egg yolks
1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
1/2 cup unsalted butter, melted and cooled to room temperature
Vigorously whisk, or beat with an electric mixer, the egg yolks and lemon juice together in a stainless steel bowl until the mixture is thickened. Place the bowl over a saucepan or barely simmering water (or use a double boiler – do not allow the water to touch the bottom of the bowl or pan). Continue to whisk rapidly, being careful not to let the mixture get too hot or the eggs will scramble.
Slowly drizzle in the melted butter and continue to whisk until the sauce is thickened and doubled in volume. Remove from heat and season to taste with salt. Serve warm.
Makes about 1 cup
BEARNAISE SAUCE – Stir in 1 tablespoon dry white wine with the lemon juice. After sauce thickens, stir in 1 tablespoon finely chopped onion, 1-1/2 teaspoons chopped fresh or 1/2 teaspoon dried tarragon leaves, and 1-1/2 teaspoons chopped fresh or 1/4 teaspoon dried chervil leaves.
MALTAISE SAUCE – After the sauce thickens, stir in 1/2 teaspoon grated orange peel and 2 tablespoons orange juice.
MOUSSELINE SAUCE – Prepare Hollandaise Sauce and cool to room temperature. Just before serving, beat 1/4 cup heavy whipping cream until stiff peaks form and fold into the cooled sauce.
BASIC TOMATO SAUCE
1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil
1 medium onion, diced fine
1 medium carrot, diced fine
1 teaspoon dried basil
1/2 bay leaf
1 can (35-ounces) Italian plum tomatoes with liquid
Freshly ground black pepper
Heat the oil in a heavy 3 quart saucepan over medium heat. Stir in the onion, carrot, basil and bay leaf. Reduce the heat to medium-low. Sauté the vegetables, stirring frequently until softened, about 10 minutes.
Stir in the tomatoes and liquid. Reduce the heat to simmering. Cover the pan and simmer, stirring occasionally, until the vegetables are tender, about 20 minutes.
Stir in the salt and pepper to taste. Simmer 5 minutes. Working in batches process the sauce in a food processor or blender to the desired consistency-about 10 seconds at low speed for a smooth sauce, about 5 seconds at low speed for a medium-coarse sauce, or 3 or 4 quick on/off pulses for a chunky sauce.
Makes about 4 cups
1 large egg or 2 egg yolks*
1 tablespoon white wine vinegar or white vinegar or white rice vinegar
1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
1/2 teaspoon dry mustard
1/8 teaspoon sugar
1/8 teaspoon ground white pepper, or to taste
Salt, to taste
1 cup vegetable oil, preferably canola
Blend all the ingredients, except the oil, in a blender until smooth. With the machine running, add the oil very slowly in a slow steady stream, until the mixture is well combined and thickened.
Taste and adjust the seasoning as desired, store in the refrigerator in a container with a tight-fitting lid for 3 to 4 days.
Makes 1 cup
NOTE – Homemade mayonnaise will not be as thick as commercially made mayonnaise.
GARLIC MAYONNAISE (Aioli) – Add 2 teaspoons minced garlic, roasted for an additional flavor boost, with the first group of ingredients.
HERB MAYONNAISE – Stir 1 to 2 tablespoons minced fresh herbs, such as flat-leaf parsley, watercress, basil, oregano, or tarragon, into the completed mayonnaise.
TARTAR SAUCE – Add chopped sweet pickle, minced onions, chopped parsley, lemon juice and salt and pepper to taste.
REMOULADE SAUCE – Add chopped sour pickle, chopped capers, chopped parsley, prepared mustard and tarragon.
MIREPOIX – Mixed, finely diced vegetables. Typically, 2 parts onion, 1 part carrot and 1 part celery or celery root (Celeriac). Sautéed in butter and used as seasoning in soups, sauces (Espagnole) and stews.
It is also used as a base on which to lay meat for braising or roasting.
For a low fat chicken noodle soup, a more coarsely diced version can also be boiled into the stock with the chicken and the noodles.
SOFRITO – A mixture of finely diced herbs and vegetables, like Mirepoix, but often containing tomatoes, garlic and peppers. Typically sautéed in olive oil, not butter, to flavor pasta sauces, Paella, Gumbo, Jambalaya many other Mediterranean , Caribbean, Latin American and Louisiana dishes.
It is also sometimes used raw, as in the cold Spanish soup Gazpacho and for us here in California, in perhaps the best known sauce of all, Pico de Gallo.
Pico de Gallo is also used to flavor beans, soups and stews.