- Puff pastry
- Turnovers ( apple, berry, pastry cream)
- Palmiers (jam, nutella)
- Fruit tarts
- Pate a choux dough
- Donuts, fritters
- Pastry bag use
- Éclairs, churros
- Cake decorating, piping
- Closed star
- French tip
- Plain round tip
- Dual opening tip
- Ribbon tip
- Phyllo dough desserts
- Galaktoboureko-traditional phyllo with vanilla custard
- Fruit and/or cheese streudel (berry, apple, honey ricotta)
- Fruit tartlets (seasonal fruit, marscapone, ricotta
- Seasonal fruit list
- See attached sheet
History of Pate a choux
According to legend, the dough was first invented by French chef Panterelli in the year 1540. He was the chief baker at the courts of Catherine De Medici. When Catherine was forced to leave Florence along with her court, her chef wanted to make a pastry which could be made quickly while traveling. As a result, he came up with the idea of heating butter and water with flour to make pastry dough with a high water content. He then used the dough to make small cakes called as Pâte à Panterelli. Over time, the name of these small cakes changed to Pâte à Popelin or Popelins. Other chefs like Avice adopted the recipe to make choux buns which were baked, split open and stuffed with sweet or savory fillings. However, the exact method of making choux pastry was not well known until the recipe was published by the French chef Anotoine Careme in 1815, in his famous cookbook Pâtissier Royal.
Cream puffs and éclairs are airy pastries made from a French dough called pate a choux or choux pastry. The pastry can be formed into a variety of sizes by being dropped from a spoon or by being piped from a pastry bag. The baked puffs are used for desserts as well as appetizers. Cream puffs and éclairs get their puff from the steam that is produced from the water, eggs, and fat in the batter. Choux pastry does not use a leavening agent. The high water content in the pastry creates steam which acts as a leavening agent to puff up the dough.
When baking the dough, its important not to overcrowd the baking pan. Leave about 3 inches of space around each puff or éclair. The dough needs room to expand during baking and needs air to circulate so the steam gives off and evaporate.
For best flavor, serve cream puffs and éclairs the same day they are made, If necessary they can be prepared a day in advance. Store the unfilled pastries in a plastic bag in the refrigerator and fill just before serving.
For longer storage, arrange unfilled pastries in a single layer on a baking sheet and freeze. Once they are frozen, transfer to a heavy duty resealable plastic bag and freeze for up to 2 months. Thaw at room temperature for 15-20 minutes before using. If the thawed pastries are a little soggy, reheat them in the oven for a few minutes.
Demo: We will demo pate a choux, pipe out éclairs, puffs, and demo churros.
Pate a choux Recipe (Culinary Fundamentals, ACF) Yield 6 lbs.
1 qt of milk
1 lb. butter
1.5 tsp sugar
1.5 tsp salt
1 lb. bread flour (ap flour also can work)
2 lb eggs
Bring the milk, butter, sugar, and salt to a boil over medium heat, stirring constantly.
Remove from the heat, add the flour all at once, and stir vigorously to combine. Return the pan to medium heat and cook, stirring constantly, until the mixture pulls away from the sides of the pan, about 3 mins.
Transfer the mixture to the bowl of a stand mixer and beat briefly on medium speed with a paddle attachment. Add the eggs two at a time, beating until smooth after each addition. The pate a choux is ready to be piped and baked.
Begin baking the 375-400 degrees then reduce the heat to 250 degrees once the pate a choux begins to take on color. Bake the items until they swell to several times their original volume are golden brown, and have no moisture beads on the sides. Baked shells should be hollow with a dry, delicate texture. You can fill the éclairs or puffs with pastry cream, crème chantillly, or ice cream.
Pastry Cream (Culinary Fundamentals, ACF) Yield 2 lbs.
21 fl. Oz of milk
6.5 oz sugar
4 oz A.P flour
2 each eggs
3 each egg yolks
Splash of vanilla
Combine 6 fluid oz. of the milk with half of the sugar in a saucepan and bring to a boil, stirring gently with a wooden spoon. Meanwhile combine the flour with the remaining sugar. Stirring with a wire whip, add the remaining 15 fluid oz . of milk. Add the eggs and egg yolks, stirring with a wire whip until the mixture is completely smooth. Temper the egg mixture by adding about one third of the hot milk, stirring constantly with a wipe whip. Return the mixture to the remaining hot milk in the saucepan. Continue cooking, vigorously stirring with the whip, until the pastry cream comes to a boil and the whip leaves a trail in it. Pour the pastry cream onto a large shallow container or bowl. Cover with plastic wrap placed directly again the surface of the cream, and cool over an ice bath. Sore the pastry cream covered, under refrigeration. Once cooled you can pipe into éclairs or fill tarts with cream.
Crème Chantilly (Julia Child and Jacques Pepin) Yield 2-3 cups
1 cup of heavy cream, well chilled
1.5 T granulated sugar
.5 T vanilla extract
1 T cognac (you can also use rum, grand marnier, or other flavored liquor)
In a mixer with a whisk attachment, whip the cream, sugar, vanilla and cognac (or other liquor) until the cream thickens into soft peaks that hold their shape. You can also make this cream by hand. Start with a chilled bowl and a flexible wire whisk. Beat the cream by whipping the whisk in a back to forth motion. Do not whip in a large circular motion, as with egg whites, as this can lead to overbeating and turn the cream to butter. Add the sugar and flavorings as you begin to beat. Beat the cream until the cream thickens into soft peaks that hold their shape.
500 grams of flour
40 grams of sugar
200 grams of eggs
15 grams of salt
1 litre of water
Sugar and cinnamon to coat fried churros
Mix sugar and cinnamon in a bowl and set aside. Bring the water to boil in a sauce pot. Dissolve the sugar and salt in the water after it boils. Add the flour once the salt and sugar are dissolved in the water. You mix it 3 or 4 minutes and remove from the heat. Add the eggs to the batter in two batches using a mixer or a wooden spoon. The dough should feel hard and come away from the pot. Add the dough to the pastry bag fitted with a star tip. In a separate pot or deep fryer bring oil to 350 degrees and fry churro rounds or sticks. Once golden brown turn hot churros into a bowl of sugar and cinnamon mixture to coat. Serve hot.
Puff pastry is a laminate dough that is a light, flaky, unleavened pastry containing several layers of fat which is in solid state at 20 °C (68 °F). In raw form, puff pastry is a dough which is spread with solid fat and repeatedly folded and rolled out. It is sometimes called a “water dough” or détrempe. The gaps that form between the layers are a result of the puff pastry rising as the water evaporates into steam during the baking process. Piercing the dough will prevent excessive puffing, and crimping along the sides will prevent the layers from flaking all of the way to the edges.
Frozen Puff pastry dough is available in sheets or individual shells. It has dozens of paper thin layers of dough separated by butter. As the pastry bakes, steam created from water in the dough makes the layers rise up and pull apart, resulting in a crisp, flaky pastry.
To use, thaw the pastry at room temperature for about 20 minutes before handling. Handle as little as possible, to avoid stretching, and tearing.
Preheat the oven as directed. Cut pastry with a sharp knife or cutter to get a clean edge. Only brush an egg wash on top of the dough, not the edges. If the edges are brushed, they will stick together and the pastry won’t rise during baking.
Unbaked puff pastry dough may be wrapped tightly in plastic wrap and stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 days or frozen for up to a month. Baked pastries are enjoyed best the same day they are made and don’t refrigerate well. Baked unfilled pastry may be frozen in airtight containers for up to 6 weeks.
Demo: We will roll croissants using frozen puff pastry, and make honey ricotta turnovers.